J Mol Neurosci. 2012 Mar;46(3):527-35. Epub 2011 Sep 3.
HRD1 levels increased by zonisamide prevented cell death and caspase-3 activation caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress in SH-SY5Y cells.
Omura T, Asari M, Yamamoto J, Kamiyama N, Oka K, Hoshina C, Maseda C, Awaya T, Tasaki Y, Shiono H, Shimizu K, Matsubara K.
SourceDepartment of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, 078-8510, Japan.
Zonisamide, which is commonly prescribed at high doses (200-400 mg/day) for the treatment of partial seizures, has recently been used at a low dose (25 mg/day) for improving parkinsonian syndrome. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the antiparkinsonian effects of zonisamide have not been clarified. Here we show that low micromolar concentrations of zonisamide prevented cleavage of caspase-3 and cell death in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells that were subjected to endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by tunicamycin or 6-hydroxydopamine. Hypodense zonisamide increased the expression levels of SEL1L, which is known to stabilize the ubiquitin ligase HRD1. Indeed, upregulation of HRD1 protein was observed. Thus, the results of this study strongly suggest that low concentrations of zonisamide inhibit neuronal cell death by increasing HRD1 protein levels in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Consequently, in addition to the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, the therapeutic potential of zonisamide should be considered for the treatment of several neurodegenerative disorders with pathophysiological mechanisms involving endoplasmic reticulum stress.
PMID:21892618[PubMed - in process]
Zonisamide-induced long-lasting recovery of dopaminergic neurons from MPTP-toxicity.
Choudhury ME, Moritoyo T, Kubo M, Kyaw WT, Yabe H, Nishikawa N, Nagai M, Matsuda S, Nomoto M.
SourceDepartment of Therapeutic Medicine, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Toon-Shi, Ehime 791-0295, Japan.
Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug that also improves the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. This study investigated the effects of zonisamide on dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice. Six groups of mice were treated as follows: 1) normal saline; 2) MPTP, 15 mg/kg×4 every 2h; 3) MPTP and zonisamide, 40 mg/kg×1, 1h after the last MPTP dose; 4) MPTP and zonisamide, 1 day after the last dose of MPTP; 5) MPTP and zonisamide, 1h before the first MPTP dose; and 6) zonisamide, 40 mg/kg. MPTP-treatment decreased the contents of dopamine as well as the number and area of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons. Concurrent treatment of mice with zonisamide and MPTP did not show any inhibition of the toxic effect of MPTP towards dopamine contents at 1 week after treatment but it increased the number and area of TH-positive neurons compared to the MPTP-treated group. Surviving TH-positive neurons had recovery of dopamine production after several weeks. Moreover, zonisamide increased the number of S100β-positive and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes and dopamine turnover. These results suggest that zonisamide acts as a neuro-protectant against MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal degeneration as shown by an increase of TH-positive neurons and this may be mediated by increased S100β secretion.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PMID:21320474[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Zonisamide improves motor function in Parkinson disease: a randomized, double-blind study.
Murata M, Hasegawa K, Kanazawa I; Japan Zonisamide on PD Study Group.
SourceDepartment of Neurology, Musashi Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawahigashimachi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8551, Japan. email@example.com
Neurology. 2007 Jul 3;69(1):120.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of daily doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg of zonisamide (ZNS) administered as adjunctive treatment in patients with Parkinson disease (PD).
METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-treatment, placebo-controlled study in Japan. Patients with PD who showed insufficient response to levodopa treatment were given placebo for 2 weeks and then treated for 12 weeks with 25, 50, or 100 mg/day of ZNS or placebo, in addition to levodopa, followed by a 2-week dose-reduction period. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in the total score of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part III at the final assessment point. Secondary endpoints included changes from baseline in total daily "off" time; total scores of UPDRS Parts I, II, and IV; and Modified Hoehn and Yahr Scale score. Safety analysis was based on the incidence of adverse events.
RESULTS: There was significant improvement in the primary endpoint in the 25-mg and 50-mg groups vs placebo. The duration of "off" time was significantly reduced in the 50-mg and 100-mg groups vs placebo. Dyskinesia was not increased in ZNS groups. The incidence of adverse effects was similar between the 25-mg, 50-mg, and placebo groups but higher in the 100-mg group.
CONCLUSIONS: Zonisamide is safe, effective and well tolerated at 25 to 100 mg/day as an adjunctive treatment in patients with Parkinson disease.